Chemistry of Milk

Definition and structure of milk, factors affecting composition of milk, Nomenclature and classification of milk proteins, Casein: Isolation, fractionation and chemical composition, physico-chemical properties of casein, Whey proteins: Preparation of total whey proteins: α-Lactalbumin and β- Lactoglobuline. Properties of α -Lactalbumin and β lactoglobulin, Immmunoglobulin and other minor milk proteins and non proteins nitrogen constituents of milk, Hydrolysis and denaturation of milk proteins under different physical and chemical environments, Estimation of milk proteins using different physical and chemical methods, Importance of genetic polymorphism of milk proteins ,Milk enzymes with special reference to lipases, Xanthine Oxidase, phosphates, proteases and lactoperoxidase, Milk carbohydrates their status and importance. Physical and chemical properties of lactose, Sugar amine condensation, amadori re arrangement, production of hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF), Processing related degradation of lactose, Definition, general composition and classification of milk lipids. Nomenclature and general structure of glycerides, factors affecting the fatty acid composition. Milk phospholipids and their role in milk products, Unsaponifiable matter and fat soluble vitamins, Milk Salts: Mineral in milk (a) major mineral (b) Trace elements, physical equilibria among the milk salts and Milk contact surfaces and metallic contamination.