Drainage Engineering

Drainage, objectives of drainage, familiarization with the drainage problems of the state, Surface drainage, drainage coefficient, types of surface drainage, design of open channel, sub-surface drainage purpose and benefits, investigations of design parameters, hydraulic conductivity, drainable porosity, water table etc., types and use of subsurface drainage system, Design of surface drains, interceptor and relief drains. Derivation of ellipse (Hooghoudt’s) and Ernst’s drain spacing equations. Design of subsurface drainage system. Drainage materials, drainage pipes, drain envelope. Layout, construction and installation of drains. Drainage structures. Vertical drainage. Bio-drainage. Tile Drains. Drainage of irrigated and humid areas. Salt balance, reclamation of saline and alkaline soils. Leaching requirements, conjunctive use of fresh and saline waters. Economic aspects of drainage.