Status of fat-rich dairy products in India and abroad. Cream:
a) Definition & Legal standards, Effeciency of cream separation and factors affecting it; control of fat concentration in cream. b) Planning and operating a cream production unit) neutralization, standardization, pasteurization and cooling of cream. c) Preparation and properties of different types of cream; table cream, sterilized cream, whipped cream, plastic cream, frozen cream and chip-dips (cultured cream), UHT processing of cream. d) Bacteriology of cream including defects, factors affecting quality of cream; ripening of cream e) Packaging storage and distribution, defects (non-microbial) in cream and their prevention. Butter: a) Introduction to the butter making process; theory of churning, Legal standards. b) Technology of Butter manufacture, Batch and continuous methods. Over-run in butter; control of fat loses in butter-milk; packaging and storage; transportation; defects in butter; rheology of butter; uses of butter. Microenvironment in cream and butter, impact of critical process factors on entry of spoilage and pathogenic organisms in cream & butter, their spoilages & control measures. Legal microbiologies specifications of cream & butter. Butter making equipment: Construction, operation, care and maintenance of cream separators, coolers and vacreator, factory butterchurn and continuous butter making machine. Special butters and related products:a) Manufacture, packaging, storage and properties of whey butter, flavoured butter, whipped butter, renovated butter / fractionated and polyunsaturated milk fat products, vegetable oil-blended products and low-fat spreads. b) Manufacture, packaging, storage and characteristics of margarine of different types.Ghee and butter oil: a) Methods of ghee making-batch and industrial processes, innovations in ghee production, procedure, packaging and preservation of ghee; utilization of substandard milk. b) Ghee: Composition and changes during manufacture fat constants.