Heat & Mass Transfer

Basic heat transfer process, thermal conductivity, convective film co-efficient, Stefan Boltzman’s constant and equivalent radiation co-efficient, Overall heat transfer co-efficient, physical properties related to heat transfer. Working principles and application of various instruments for measuring temperature. One-dimensional steady state conduction: Theory of heat conduction, Fourier’s law, Derivation of Fourier’s equation in Cartesian co-ordinates, Linear heat flow through slab, cylinder and sphere. Heat flow through slab, cylinder and sphere with non-uniform thermal conductivity. Concept of electrical analogy and its application for thermal circuits, Heat transfer through composite walls and insulated pipelines. One dimensional steady state heat conduction with heat generation : Heat flow through slab, hollow sphere and cylinder with uniform heat generation, Development of equations of temperature distribution with different boundary conditions. Steady-state heat conduction with heat dissipation to environment :Introduction to extended surfaces (FINS) of uniform area of cross-section. Equation of temperature distribution with different boundary conditions. Effectiveness and efficiency of the FINS. Introduction to unsteady state heat conduction. Convection: Forced and free convection, use of dimensional analysis for correlating variables affecting convection heat transfer, Concept of Nusselt number. Prandtl number, Reynolds number, Grashoff number, Some important empirical relations used for determination of heat transfer coefficient. Heat Exchangers: General discussion, fouling factors, jacketed kettles, LMTD, parallel and counter flow heat exchangers, Shell and tube and plate heat exchangers, Heat exchanger design. Application of different types of heat exchangers in dairy and food industry. Fick’s Law of diffusion, steady state diffusion of gases and liquids through solids. Equimolal diffusion. Mass transfer co-efficient and problems on mass transfer.