Judging of Dairy Products

Introduction, definition and importance of sensory evaluation in relation: to consumer acceptability and economic aspects; factors affecting food acceptance. Terminology related to sensory evaluation. Design and requirements of sensory evaluation laboratory. Basic principles: Senses and sensory perception, Physiology of sensory organs, Classification of tastes and odours, threshold value factors affecting senses, visual, auditory, tactile and other responses.Fundamental rules for scoring and grading of milk and milk products. Procedure: Types of tests – difference tests (Paired comparison, due-trio, triangle) ranking, scoring, Hedonic scale and descriptive tests. Panel selection, screening and training of judges. Requirements of sensory evaluation, sampling procedures. Factors influencing sensory measurements. Milk: Classes of raw and processed milks, defects associated with them; milk score card and its use. Judging and grading of milk. Fermented milks: Desirable and undesirable characteristics of fermented milks, sensory evaluation of dahi, yoghurt, chakka, srikhand, lassi and other fermented drinks. Cream: Desirable attributes and defects in cream, Score card for cream, Judging and grading of different types of cream. Butter: Specific requirements of high grade butter, undesirable attributes of butter, butter score-card, sensory evaluation of butter. Ghee: Grades of ghee, special requirements of quality ghee, defects in ghee, sensory evaluation of ghee. Frozen dairy products: Desirable and undesirable characteristics of frozen dairy products. Sensory evaluation of ice cream, kulfi and milk sherbets.Cheese: Quality attributes of some common cheese varieties and their defects, score card for cheese. Sensory evaluation and grading for cheddar, cottage and other varieties of cheeses. Dried dairy products: Desirable and undesirable characteristic of dried milks. Judging and grading of dry milk products. Concentrated milks: Desirable attributes and defects. Judging and gradidng of evaporated and condensed milk. Heat desiccated Indian milk products: Desirable and undesirable characteristics. Sensory evaluation of khoa and khoa based sweets. Acid coagulated Indian milk products: desirable arid undesirable characteristics. Sensory evaluation of paneer, chhana and chhana based sweets. Consumer acceptance studies: Objectives. Methods, types or questionnaires, development of questionnaires, comparison of laboratory testing and Consumers studies, limitations. Interrelationship between sensory properties of dairy products and various instrumental and physico-chemical tests. Preparation of milk and milk products with defects, techniques for simulation.