Market Milk

Market milk industry in India and abroad: Distinctive features of tropical dairying as compared to those of the tropical climate of developed countries. Collection and transportation of milk; a) Organization of milk collection routes b) Practices for collection of milk, preservation at farm, refrigeration, natural microbial inhibitors, lactoperoxidase system. c) Microbial quality of milk produced on farm. Effect of pooling and storing on microbial quality of refrigerated milk. Role of psychrotrophs, Role of tropical climate on spoilage of milk.d) Chemical tests for grading raw milk. e) Microbio- logical tests for grading raw milk. Reception and treatment (pre-processing steps) of milk in the dairy plant: a) Reception, chilling, clarification and storage: General practices. b) Homogenisation: Definition, pretreatments, theories, synchronization of homogenizer with operation of pasteurizer (HTST) c) Effect of homogenization on physical properties of milk. d) Bactofugation: Theory and microbiology. Thermal processing of milk: a) Principles of thermal processing: kinetics of microbial destruction, thermal death curve, arrhenius equation, D value, Z value, F0 value, Q10 value. b) Factors affecting thermal destruction of micro-organisms. c) Definition and description of processes: Pasteurization, thermisation, sterilization, UHT Processing. d) Microbiology of pasteurised milk, thermdzes, sterilized & UHT milk. e) Product control in market milk plant. f) Defects in market milk. g) Manufacture of special milks: toned, doubled toned, reconstituted, recombined, flavoured, homogenized vitaminised and sweet acidophilus milk. h) Manufacture of sterilized milk. i) Distribution systems for market milk. Quality and safety aspectes in dairy food chain, good manufacturing practices (GMP) in dairy processing. UHT processing of milk : a) Relevance of UHT processing in the tropical climate b) UHT plants: Description. Direct, Indirect, with upstream and downstream homogenization, third generation UHT plants. c) Aseptic packaging, types and systems of packaging, sterilizing packages, filling systems. d) Technical control in the UHT plant. Training of personnel. Plant hygience. e) Shelf life of UHT milk and tests for UHT milk. Nutritive value of milk. Effect of heat processing on nutritive value. Efficiency of plant operation: product accounting, setting up norms for operational and processing losses for quantity, fat and SNF, monitoring efficiency. Maintaining plant hygiene & HACCP.