Sowing and Planting Equipment - AICRP on Farm Implements and Machinery

Manually Operated 6-Row Rice Transplanter

It is a manually operated equipment suitable for transplanting of mat type rice seedlings in rows in puddled soils. It consists of floats made of marine plywood, seedling tray, tray indexing mechanism and pickers for planting seedlings. When the operator pulls the machine and operates the handle, the picker, six in number, gathers two or three seedlings and place them in the puddled soil. The row-to-row distance can be maintained at 200 mm. It can cover 0.04-0.05 ha/h and labour requirement is 40-50 man-h/ha. It results in 5 to 10% increase in yield. It costs Rs 4,500/- and cost of operation is Rs 1250/ha as compared to Rs. 3750/ha with manual method.

Animal Drawn Multi-crop Planter

Animal drawn 3-row planter is a multi-crop planter for planting of bold and small seeds. The planter is also suitable for sowing of inter-crops as different seeds can be filled in different boxes. The planter consists of a frame with tool bar, modular seed boxes, furrow openers and ground wheel. It has three independent seed boxes with inclined plate type seed metering mechanism. Seed plates for sowing different seeds can be selected and changed easily. The plate thickness, number and size of cells on seed plate vary according to seed size and desired plant-to-plant spacing. Shoe type furrow openers ensure deeper seed placement in moist zone for sowing under dryland condition. Modular seed box-furrow opener units are adjustable for sowing seeds at different row-to-row spacing. Drive to seed metering mechanism is transmitted from ground wheel through chain and sprockets. Ground wheel and power transmission system are fixed on the main frame. An optional fertilizer box with fluted roller type metering system can also be mounted on the main frame for application of granular fertilizers. Drive ratio between ground drive wheel and seed plate can be changed by selecting appropriate size of sprocket on wheel axle or on counter and main drive shafts. The labour requirement is 7-8 man-h/ha. The cost of 3-row planter is Rs. 15,000/-. The cost of operation of the implement is Rs 270-360/ha as compared to Rs 550/ha with traditional method.

Power Tiller Operated Till Plant Machine

It is suitable for sowing seeds of wheat, soybean, bengal gram, sorghum etc in medium and heavy soils. This machine has been designed for operation with a power tiller of 7.5 - 9.0 kW to carry out tilling and planting operations simultaneous in a single pass. It can plant two rows simultaneously. Some of its major components are main frame, seed and fertilizer boxes, metering mechanism, transport wheel, furrow openers, hitch system etc. It is provided with a pair of depth control gauge wheels, which also serve to activate the metering mechanism. The effective field capacity of equipment is 0.15 ha/h. It costs Rs. 15,000/-and its cost of operation is Rs 950/ha.

Tractor Operated Zero-Till Seed-Cum-Fertilizer Drill

It has been developed to sow wheat directly in rice harvested fields without preparing the seedbed. It is a 9/11/13-row unit consisting of fluted rollers for seed metering and agitators over adjustable openings for fertilizer metering. It is operated by 26 kW tractor and consists of tubular steel section frame, seed and fertilizer boxes, fluted roller metering mechanism for seeds, two depth control wheels for controlling the sowing depth, inverted ‘T’ type furrow openers made of medium carbon steel with high speed steel tip in the front for opening narrow slits in untilled soil, ground drive wheel having lugs on its circumference and acts as a power source to drive the metering mechanism of the drill and power transmission system. The zero-till drill is operated in the field when the soil moisture is about 24-27% and the stubble height of previous harvested crop is not more than 150-200 mm. The field capacity of the machine is 0.3-0.4 ha/h with about 75% efficiency. Use of zero-till drill for direct sowing of wheat after rice was found to be advantageous in terms of 50-60% saving in time and 40-50% saving in cost of sowing as compared to the conventional practice of seedbed preparation and sowing with seed-cum-fertilizer drill. The cost of machine is Rs 35,000/-. The machine saves about Rs. 1000-1500/ha.

Tractor Mounted Raised Bed Planter

A bed-former-cum-seeder has been developed for sowing wheat. The bed planter consists of a frame, planting hoppers, fertilizer box, furrow openers, bed shaper and power transmitting wheel. The frame is made of mild steel sections. The furrow openers are ridger type and have mouldboard and share point. The wing span of the mould board can be adjusted. The share is made of medium carbon steel or alloy steel, hardened and tempered to suitable hardness. The machine makes two beds. It can sow two or three rows of wheat on each bed. It has seed metering unit of vertical disc type. The draft requirement of the machine is reduced due to roller type bed shaper. A planting attachment has also been made with the machine for sowing maize, groundnut, cotton etc on the beds. The field capacity of machine is 0.26 ha/h. The approximate cost of equipment is Rs. 40,000/-. The cost of operation is about Rs. 4500/ha as compared to Rs. 3400/ha in conventional method. It saves about 20-30% water and 20% seeds.

Tractor Operated Inclined Plate Planter

Tractor operated 6-row inclined plate planter is a multi-crop planter for planting of bold and small seeds and developed at CIAE, Bhopal and PAU, Ludhiana.The planter consists of a frame with tool bar, modular seed boxes, furrow openers and ground drive wheel system. It has six modular design seed boxes with independent inclined plate type seed metering mechanism. Seed plates for sowing different seeds can be selected and changed easily. The plate thickness, number and size of cells on seed plate vary according to seed size and desired plant-to-plant spacing. For operation, the seed is filled in the hopper, seeds are picked up by the cells of inclined plate and delivered in the opening connected to furrow opener through seed tubes. Shoe type furrow openers ensure deep seed placement in moist zone for sowing under dryland condition. Modular seed box-furrow opener units are adjustable for sowing seeds at different row-to-row spacing. The plant to plant spacing can be varied by changing the transmission ratio. The drive to seed metering mechanism is transmitted from ground drive wheel through chain and sprockets. It can be adopted for sowing intercrop on broad beds. The field capacity of the equipment is 0.42 ha/h with an effective width of coverage of 1.85 m. The approximate cost of the equipment is Rs. 40,000/-. The cost of operation is Rs. 2300/ha as compared to Rs. 3500/ha by conventional method.

Tractor Operated Sett Cutter Planter for Sugarcane

It is a whole stick sugarcane cutter planter and consists of ridger body attached to frame to create furrows, sett cutting unit, fertilizer application unit, chemical application unit, sett covering unit and seed box. The planter is PTO driven and mounted from three point linkage system of a tractor. The cutting of the cane of 350 mm length is done automatically in the machine and setts are treated with insecticides at the cutting point. The setts are placed in the furrow created by ridger bodies with overlapping up to 30%. The pesticide is also sprayed at the ends of sett in the furrows. The sett placed in the furrow is covered immediately after the treatment, the furrow is closed and rows are leveled by the leveler provided in the machine. The field capacity of the machine is 0.20 ha/h. The approximate cost of equipment is Rs 50000/-. The cost of operation of equipment is Rs. 2800/ha as compared to Rs. 4300/ha by traditional method.

Tractor Operated Multi-crop Planter for Seed Spices

The sowing of seed spices is mainly done by broadcasting method or drilled in small plots at a spacing of 250-300 mm and depth of 10-15 mm. A 7 row multi-crop planter with individual hopper boxes with seed metering mechanism mounted on a common frame with fertilizer drilling attachment was developed at MPUAT, Udaipur. The seed metering mechanism of star wheel (plastic) was made of circular rotor of 90 mm diameter with 10 cells of 20 mm length. The height of seed dropping from hopper was kept at 400 mm to get the placement of seeds at a depth of 10-15 mm. The inverted T type furrow opener of smaller size was fitted in the drill. The machine was tested for sowing of cumin, coriander and fenugreek at NRC on Seed Spices, Ajmer and farmer’s fields in Jalore district of Rajasthan. The seed rate of 6.5-7.5, 12-15 and 9-10 kg/ha was recorded for cumin, fenugreek and coriander, respectively. The field capacity of machine was 0.28-0.30 ha/h with depth of seed placement of 12-15 mm.

Power Tiller Operated Inclined Plate Planter

Power tiller operated 3 row inclined plate planter was designed and developed for sowing maize, soybean and pea crops in terraces and valley lands of NEH region. The power is transmitted from ground drive wheel to seed feed shaft through chain, sprockets and a set of bevel gears. The row to row spacing of the planter is adjustable (130-280 mm) by sliding the furrow openers on tool bar. Different crops can be sown by changing seed plates and by changing the transmission ratio. The effective field capacity of equipment is 0.114 ha/h in hilly region. The cost of inclined plate planter is Rs 12,000/- and cost of operation is Rs 1600/ha.

Tractor Operated Pneumatic Planter

Tractor operated pneumatic planter has been developed at MPKV, Rahuri and is suitable for precision planting of single seed of crops like cotton, okra etc. at pre-determined spacing. It consists of main frame, aspirator blower, disc with holes, metering plate, individual hopper, furrow openers and ground wheel. Seed coming in contact with rotating disc gets stuck to the holes on the plate through suction and falls when suction is cut-off at the lowest position near the ground. The effective field capacity of the machine for planting okra is 0.29 ha/h with 85.22% field efficiency. There is saving in operating cost of Rs. 4826/ha as against traditional method for planting okra. The effective field capacity of the machine for cotton planting is 0.30 ha/h with 55.55% field efficiency. The saving in operating cost is Rs. 4597/-ha as against traditional method for cotton planting. There is a saving of valuable seed and labour requirement as compared to traditional method as thinning operation is eliminated.