Advisory on Crop Protection against frost (cold wave)
The following measures are suggested to protect the sensitive crops from frost damage:
Following protection measures are suggested for pulse crops:
- Spray the crop with Thiourea @ 500 ppm (500 gm in 1000 litre water) or Sulphuric acid @ 0.1% (1 litre acid in 1000 litre water). Repeat the spray after 15 days if low temperature conditions persist/recurs.
- Apply light and frequent irrigation to protect the crops from cold / frost injury. Dry soils are poor heat conductors, store less heat and therefore result in a higher risk of frost.
- Create smoke cover over the field by burning waste materials/weeds and crop residues at night (Slow burning of farm waste around field preferably in north-west corner in the evening to create a smoke-screen over the field).
- Keep the fields weed free as the weeds blocks the sunlight and heating of the soil during daytime.
Rapeseed and mustard:
Rapeseed and mustard are more sensitive at flowering/ early pod formation stage. The frost damage may be reduced by creating favourable growth conditions and providing adequate water and nutrients. To reduce further frost damage:
- Spray 500 ppm Thiourea (500 gm in 1000 litre water) or 0.1% Sulphuric acid (1 litre acid in 1000 litre water) or 0.2% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solution. Repeat the spray after 10-15 days, if required.
- Light and frequent irrigation is recommended.
- Create smoke cover over the field by burning waste materials/weeds and crop residues at night.
- Keep the fields weed free.
- Loose soil surfaces reduce conduction of heat to the surface at night and therefore tend to have lower surface temperatures than compacted soils. Thus it is advisable not to cultivate the soil if frost is expected.
Many vegetable crops, mainly capsicum, chillies, brinjal and tomato are susceptible to chilling/frost.
- Since seedlings are most sensitive to frost injury, cover the nursery beds with plastic sheets / straw thatches in the evening to protect seedlings from frost. Covers should be removed during the day as air humidity would be higher under the cover and this would increase the danger of certain plant diseases.
- Apply light and frequent irrigation to vegetables.
- Well-hilled potatoes are less prone to frost damage to tubers as the covering of plant parts beneath the soil surface with a layer of soil is a way of protecting against frost.
- Row covers made of clear or black plastic can be used to create an insulated barrier overnight.
- Clear plastic mulches that increase heat transfer into the soil improve heat storage and hence provide better freeze protection. Wetting the soil before covering with clear plastic provides the best protection.
- Clouds and fog are well-known for their ability to reduce radiative heat loss from the surface. Therefore, foggers that use high pressure lines and nozzles to make fog droplets provide good protection under calm wind conditions.
- Heaters with fans may also be used to protect high value crops in small areas. The best results are obtained when the air is calm.
- In case of vegetables where the damage has exceeded 30% or more, it is recommended to re-plant the crop by raising the seedling nursery again. Fresh nurseries may be used to transplant the main crop during February. Appropriate varieties of these crops may be chosen while raising nurseries in consultation with the local horticulture experts. Such nurseries may be raised under shade nets and Borax @ 0.1% may be sprayed on the seedlings.
Long term measures
- In regions prone to frequent frosts, raising of permanent wind breaks / shelter belts on the windward side is advised.
- Grow genotypes of different flowering/maturity span to avoid failure of all crops.
(Source: Natural Resource Management Division, ICAR)
- The lowest minimum temperature of 8.2 °C has been recorded at Lucknow & Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) in plains of the country.
Main Weather Observations
- Rain/snow has occurred at a few places over Jammu & Kashmir and at isolated places over Himachal Pradesh. Rain/thundershowers have occurred at many places over Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Gangetic West Bengal; at a few places over Jharkhand, Vidarbha & interior Andhra Pradesh and at isolated places over Sikkim, Madhya Maharashtra, west Madhya Pradesh, interior Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Weather remained mainly dry over rest of the country.
- The amounts of rainfall (in cm) recorded at 0830 hours IST of today is Bhubaneshwar, Cuttack and Hyderabad-4 each, Udgir, Chandbali, Balasore, Baripada and Kodaikanal-3 each; Hirakud, Sambalpur, Angul and Paradip-2 each and Batote, Manali, Jharsuguda, Nagpur, Gondia, Ambikapur, Keonjhargarh, Digha, Bijapur and Mysore-1each.
- Maximum temperatures are below normal by 2-5°C at many places over Chhattisgarh & Odisha; at a few places over south Rajasthan, east Madhya Pradesh, Vidarbha, Gangetic West Bengal and at isolated placers over east Uttar Pradesh, Telangana & north interior Karnataka. They are above normal by 2-3°C at isolated places over Punjab & Tamilnadu and nearly normal over rest of the country
- Kalpana-1: Cloud imagery at 0830 hours IST shows convective clouds over some parts of western Himalayan region, Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh. Low/medium clouds are seen over parts of rest western Himalayan region, Punjab, Haryana, north Rajasthan, west Uttar Pradesh, west Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat region, Sikkim, rest northeastern states and peninsular India.
Weather Forecast for next 3 days (upto 0830 hours IST of 8th March, 2014)
- Rain/snow would occur at few places over Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand during next 24 hours, isolated places for subsequent 24 hours and mainly dry thereafter.
- Rain/snow would occur at isolated places over Jammu & Kashmir during next 48 hours and mainly dry thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over Madhya Maharashtra and Telangana during next 48hours and isolated thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over north interior Karnataka during next 24 hours and decrease thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Vidarbha, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema, Kerala and Lakshadweep.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat Region, Sub-Himalayan West Bengal & Sikkim, Assam and Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram & Tripura during next 24 hours and mainly dry thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a isolated places over Arunachal Pradesh, coastal & south interior Karnataka and Tamilnadu during next 48 hours and mainly dry thereafter.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at isolated places over Marathawada during next 24 hours and at a few subsequent 24 hours and at isolated places thereafter.
- Mainly dry weather would prevail over rest of the country.
- Latest available satellite picture (Fig.1) indicates the current cloud condition across Indian region.
- The climate outlook for the period of seven days i.e. 5th to 13th March 2014 (Fig.2). Rain/snow would occur at few places over Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram & Tripura, Sub-Himalayan West Bengal & Sikkim, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Gujarat Region, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, coastal & interior Karnataka and Tamilnadu, Kerala and Lakshadweep.
Weather Outlook for subsequent 4 days from 8th to 12th March, 2014
- A fresh western disturbance would affect western Himalayan region adjoining northwest plains from 10th.
- Rain/thundershowers would occur at a few places over Maharashtra and isolated places over north Andhra Pradesh, north Karnataka, south Madhya Pradesh and south Chhattisgarh.
- Light rainfall received in the Jammu region of Jammu & Kashmir state during past few days. The maximum temperature remained below normal by 3 to 6.0°C and it ranged from 17.0 to 22.4°C (23.7°C Normal). The minimum temperature varied and it ranged from 6.8 to 11.0°C (9.9°C Normal), respectively. Agricultural operations like controlling measures for yellow rust in wheat and monitoring the mustard, linseed, coriander, fenugreek, spinach, radish, broccoli, cauliflower, carrot and knoll khol for aphid's occurrence and transplanting of summer vegetables crop are in progress. Moderate intensity of yellow rust in wheat and aphids in mustard crop was noticed.
- Light rainfall received in Himachal Pradesh state during past few days. The maximum temperature during the week ranged between 8.0 to 19.0°C which was below normal by 0.0 to 10.0°C during the entire week except on 26th & 27th February and the minimum temperature between 4.0 to 8.5°C which was below normal by 0.0 to 4.4°C during the entire week. Agricultural operations like arrangement of fodder for cattle and dairy animals, hand weeding in mustard and wheat crops is in progress. Low intensity of aphids in mustard is noticed.
- Dry weather prevailed in the Kerala state during past few days. The maximum temperature ranged from 34.6 to 36.0°C and minimum temperature ranged from 23.6 to 24.9°C. Agricultural operations like weeding, manuring and irrigation and mulching is to retain moisture content in coconut, arecanut and pepper garden are in progress. Mild intensity of pseudo stem borer, sigatoka and rhizome weevil banana, fruit flies & downy mildew in vegetables, sun scorching in arecanut, marginal thrips in pepper and fungal disease in rubber were noticed.
(Source:Email: email@example.com, CRIDA, Hyderabad )
Updated on 06-03-2014 5:45 PM