Highlights of 45th All India Wheat and Barley Research Workers’ Meet – 2006

The 45th All India Wheat and Barley Research Workers’ Meet was jointly organized by Directorate of Wheat Research, Karnal, Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur and Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur from 18-21 August, 2006. The main agenda of this Meet was to review the work done under the All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project during 2005-06 as well as to formulate the work plan for 2006-07. Dr. M.V. Rao, former Special D.G. ICAR inaugurated the Meet while the keynote address was delivered by Dr. G. Kalloo, DDG (CS&H). Over 250 delegates including wheat and barley scientists took part in the deliberations. The Meet was also attended by scientists from CIMMYT, Mexico and Nepal, farmers, persons from KVK, and private seed, fertilizers and agrochemical companies.
After reviewing the work done under the All India Coordinated Wheat and Barley Improvement Project during 2005-06, the following recommendations were made.
Identification of new high yielding disease resistant varieties
The following new varieties of wheat, triticale and barley have been identified for different production conditions and area of adaptation:

S.No Name Area of adaptation Production condition Remarks
                                                BREAD WHEAT  
1 DBW 17 Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (except Kota and Udaipur divisions) and Western UP (except Jhansi division), parts of J&K (Jammu and Kathua distt.) and parts of HP (Una dist. and Paonta valley) and Uttaranchal (Tarai region)

Irrigated timely sown condition

DBW 17 gave 1.2 quintal yield advantage over the best check PBW 343. It also has genetically diverse pedigree as compared to PBW 343 and PBW 502. DBW 17 has adult plant resistance to the new yellow rust race 78S84 for which PBW 343 and PBW 502 are susceptible. This var. shows resistance to the prevalent pathotypes of brown rust, viz., 77-5 (121R 63-1) and 104-2 (21R55) at seedling and adult plant stage while PBW 343 is susceptible to these two most prevent races, at both the stages. It also has shown better Karnal bunt resistance than PBW 343. DBW 17 also has good chapati making quality (score 7.96 out of 10). The Average yield of this variety is 49.0 q/ha
2 K 0307 Eastern UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam and plains of NE States. Irrigated timely sown condition K 0307 besides having good yield potential and disease resistance also has better quality w.r.t. chapati (score 7.96/10.0) and bread (603 loaf volume) when compared to K9107, the best quality check. The average yield of this variety is 45.6 q/ha
3 GW 366 Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan and Jhansi division of Uttar Pradesh Timely sown irrigated condition GW 366 has shown yield gain over of about 3q over the best check, GW 322 along with better disease resistance. The average yield of this variety is 51.7 q/ha
4 RAJ 4083 Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, plains of Tamil Nadu Late sown irrigated conditions RAJ 4083 has shown yield gain of 1.4 q/ha over best check, HI 977 along with disease resistance. The average yield of this variety is 41.5 q/ha
                                                DICOCCUM WHEAT  
5 DDK 1029 Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, plains of Tamil Nadu, Hilly areas of Tamil Nadu and Kerala comprising the Nilgiri and Palni hills of southern plateau. Timely sown irrigated condition DDK 1029 has good yield gain of nearly 3q/ha over best dicoccum check DDK 1009 along with disease resistance. The average yield of this variety is 40.9 q/ha
                                                                TRITICALE  
6 TL 2942 Western Himalayan regions of J&K (except Jammu and Kathua distt.); H.P. (except Una and Paonta Valley); Uttaranchal (except Tarai area); Sikkim and hills of West Bengal and N.E. States Rainfed/Irrigated timely sown condition TL 2942 was found better in yield as well as had good amber grains. It yielded 47.2  and 24.5 q/ha under irrigated and rainfed conditions respectively
                                                MALT BARLEY  
7 DWRUB 52 Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (except Kota and Udaipur divisions) and Western UP (except Jhansi division), parts of J&K (Jammu and Kathua distt.) and parts of HP (Una dist. and Paonta valley) and Uttaranchal (Tarai region) Irrigated timely sown condition DWRUB 52 is a 2-rowed barley having good yield potential and malting quality w.r.t. better hectoliter weight, low husk and low protein, high malt friability and hot water extract. It has also shown yellow rust resistance and the average yield  is 45.1 q/ha
8 RD 2668 Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan (except Kota and Udaipur divisions) and Western UP (except Jhansi division), parts of J&K (Jammu and Kathua distt.) and parts of HP (Una dist. and Paonta valley) and Uttaranchal (Tarai region) Irrigated timely sown condition RD 2668 is 2-rowed barley having good yield potential and malting quality w.r.t. better diastatic power, low malt viscosity and low husk content. It has also shown resistance to yellow rust. Average yield of this variety is 42.5 q/ha
                                                FEED BARLEY  
9 PL 751 Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan and Jhansi division of Uttar Pradesh Irrigated timely sown condition PL 751 is 6-rowed barley having good yield potential better in yield and resistant to black rust. . On an average it yield  46.8 q/ha.

New Network projects have been initiated for the following areas

  1. Hybrid wheat development – Based on the recommendation of the Brain Storming Meeting held at New Delhi on 16th August under the Chairmanship of Dr. Mangala Rai, Secretary, DARE & DG, ICAR, decision has been taken to initiate a network project for developing hybrid wheat through CMS approach.
  2. Tailoring wheat varieties suited to different RCTs – Based on the recommendations of the National Steering Committee non Rice-Wheat, action has been taken to develop wheat varieties suited to zero tillage,  FIRBS and surface seeding in a network mode.

Production technology
The major recommendations made by the Resource Management group are as follows:

Wheat

  1. For realizing higher yield and protein content of wheat in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Kota and Udaipur divisions of Rajasthan, Jhansi division of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, plains of Tamil Nadu, three splits of nitrogen (½ basal, ¼ tillering and ¼ flowering) along with 50 kg sulphur/ha through gypsum need to be applied.
  2. For dual purpose wheat (VL 829) in NHZ under rainfed conditions, 25% additional nitrogen and/or seed are required for getting optimal grain and green fodder yield (cutting at 85 DAS i.e. late jointing stage).
  3. Intensification of rice-wheat system by including vegetable pea after rice and before late sown wheat was found more profitable in north western India.
  4. Wheat sowings in the states of Punjab, northern Rajasthan and western parts of Uttar Pradesh should be completed between 4th to 11th November under timely sown, high fertility irrigated conditions for increasing the wheat productivity

Barley

  1. For cultivation dual purpose barley in north-western hilly areas, north western and north eastern plains, and one cut at 50 days after seeding (late jointing) with 25% additional seed and nitrogen should be applied for the optimum grain and green fodder yield.
  2. For cultivation of malt barley, 90 kg N/ha and three irrigations at 45, 60 and 90 days after sowing on flat bed have been found optimum for realization of high yields.

Crop protection

The important recommendations made by the Crop Protection group are as follows:

  1. For management of termites, seed treatment with a new insecticide, fipronil 5FS @ 0.3g a.i./kg seed was found very effective and hence recommended.
  2. Five newly registered rust genetic stocks namely, FLW 10, FLW 16, FLW 17, FLW 18 and FLW 2 carrying Yr5, Yr10, Yr32 in the background of WH 542 and UP 2338 and Lr39 in the background of PBW 343 will be utilized in the breeding programme. As a pre emptive measure, yellow rust resistance  must be introgressed on priority, followed by stem rust resistance to the newly evolved race Ug99 through use of resistance genes like Sr24, Sr 25 and Sr 26.
  3. The cereal cyst nematode resistant variety Raj MR–1 should be cultivated in infested areas for overcoming this nematode problem.
  4. Post harvest surveys be continued for monitoring the Karnal Bunt situation in the country so as to identify low or no disease regions. Surveys for other seed borne diseases like black point and ear cockle nematode also be done.
  5. It has been recommended earlier also that Karnal bunt resistance should be given priority for having highly resistant wheat varieties for Karnal bunt, meant for north western plains. This is very important in view of the needs of international trade.
  6. State Department of Agriculture in north western plains need to be sensitized for management of Flag smut disease of wheat through seed treatment with tebuconazole or carboxin.
  7. Rust resistance genes (Lr, Sr, Yr) were postulated in AVT wheat lines following the gene-matching technique.
  • Lr genes - Nine brown rust resistance genes viz. Lr1, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr23, Lr24, Lr26 and Lr34were postulated either singly or in combinations in 133 lines where differential host-pathogen interaction was observed. Lr26 was the most common and was followed by Lr23, Lr13 and Lr34.
  • Sr genes - Eleven black rust resistance genes namely, Sr2, Sr5, Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr8b, Sr9b, Sr9e, Sr11, Sr12, Sr24 and Sr31 were postulated in 151 lines. Sr2, based on morphological characters, was postulated in maximum number of lines followed by Sr31, Sr11 and Sr5.
  •  Yr genes - Five resistance genes conferring resistance to yellow rust viz. Yr2 (SKA), Yr2KS, Yr9, Yr18 and Yr27 were postulated in 80 lines. Yr9 was the most common gene followed by Yr18, Yr2KS, Yr2 (SKA) and Yr27.

Quality

  • Puroindoline genes imparting grain softness can be used as markers for improving biscuit making quality.
  • Nap Hal, an Indian land race with unique characteristics of Glu D1 double null trait and soft grain characteristics can be utilized in the breeding programme for the improvement of biscuit quality. This work has already started.
  • The programme on the molecular basis of wheat quality has been further strengthened for utilization in wheat improvement.
  • Programme should be initiated for micronutrient fortification in wheat and their enhanced bio-availability.
  • The centres involved in the quality work and particularly those which have been recently equipped with the advance facilities (DWR, Karnal; PAU, Ludhiana; G.B.P.U.A. & T., Pantnagar; B.H.U.; Varanasi and U.A.S. Dharwad) should undertake the work on germplasm evaluation for key quality components and help the breeders in quality improvement. The Quality Laboratories at DWR, Karnal need to be further strengthened to meet the future challenges.

Further studies on therapeutical/clinical aspects of dicoccum wheat should be carried out at Dharwad centre in association with recognized hospitals